What is anxiety?

Anxiety is a natural human response to stress or potential threats. It’s a feeling of unease, fear, or worry that can vary in intensity from mild to severe. While occasional anxiety is a normal part of life and can even be helpful in certain situations by preparing us to face challenges, excessive or persistent anxiety can become problematic and interfere with daily functioning.

There are several types of anxiety disorders, each with its own set of characteristics and triggers.

What are the different types of anxiety disorders?

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Characterized by chronic excessive worry and anxiety about various aspects of life, often without a specific cause.

Panic Disorder: Involves recurrent and sudden episodes of intense fear or panic attacks, which are accompanied by physical symptoms like a rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, and a feeling of impending doom.

Social Anxiety Disorder: Involves an intense fear of social situations and interactions, often leading to avoidance of such situations.

Specific Phobias: Involves an irrational fear of a specific object, situation, or activity, which can lead to avoidance behaviour.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviours or mental acts (compulsions) performed to alleviate the distress caused by the obsessions.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Can develop after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event, leading to symptoms like flashbacks, nightmares, and severe anxiety.

Separation Anxiety Disorder: Commonly seen in children but can persist into adulthood, characterized by excessive anxiety when separated from attachment figures.

Treatment for anxiety disorders can include psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioural therapy), medication (such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety drugs), and lifestyle changes (like stress management techniques and regular exercise). It’s important to note that seeking professional help is crucial if anxiety is significantly affecting your quality of life or functioning.


What are the signs of anxiety?

Anxiety can manifest in various ways, and the signs and symptoms can vary from person to person. Here are some common signs of anxiety:

  1. Psychological Symptoms:
  • Excessive worry: Constant, intense, and uncontrollable worrying about various aspects of life, often without a specific reason.
  • Restlessness: Feeling on edge, unable to relax, or having a sense of impending doom.
  • Irritability: Easily becoming agitated or annoyed, sometimes over minor things.
  • Difficulty concentrating: Trouble focusing on tasks due to racing thoughts or preoccupation with worry.
  • Fearfulness: Feeling a sense of fear or dread, often without a clear cause.
  • Negative thinking: Having a tendency to expect the worst outcome in situations.
  • Catastrophic thinking: Imagining the worst possible scenarios even when they are unlikely.
  1. Physical Symptoms:
  • Rapid heartbeat: Feeling your heart racing or pounding, even in non-stressful situations.
  • Sweating: Experiencing excessive sweating, especially in the palms or underarms.
  • Trembling or shaking: Hands or other body parts may shake uncontrollably.
  • Shortness of breath: Feeling breathless or having difficulty breathing properly.
  • Muscle tension: Tightness or tension in muscles, often in the neck, shoulders, or back.
  • Gastrointestinal issues: Stomachaches, nausea, or diarrhea due to heightened anxiety.
  • Fatigue: Feeling tired or exhausted, even without physical exertion.
  • Dizziness: Feeling lightheaded or dizzy, sometimes accompanied by unsteadiness.
  • Insomnia: Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep due to racing thoughts or worry.
  1. Behavioral Symptoms:
  • Avoidance behavior: Avoiding situations or places that trigger anxiety or discomfort.
  • Procrastination: Putting off tasks due to anxiety about the outcome or the process.
  • Social withdrawal: Avoiding social interactions or isolating oneself from others.
  • Rituals or compulsions: Engaging in repetitive behaviors or routines to reduce anxiety or prevent feared outcomes.
  • Nail-biting, fidgeting, or other nervous habits: Subconscious behaviors that can indicate underlying anxiety.


What are the statistics for anxiety disorders in the UK?

Prevalence: Anxiety disorders are relatively common in the UK. According to the Mental Health Foundation, in 2017, it was estimated that around 8.2 million people in the UK experienced anxiety disorders. This accounted for about 13% of the total population.

Age Groups: Anxiety disorders can affect people of all age groups, but they often begin during childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood. The prevalence of anxiety disorders can vary across age groups.

Gender: Anxiety disorders can affect individuals of any gender, but some studies suggest that they are more common in females. The reasons for this gender difference are complex and likely involve a combination of biological, psychological, and societal factors.

Types of Anxiety Disorders: Anxiety disorders encompass a range of conditions, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, specific phobias, and more. Each of these disorders has its own prevalence rates and characteristics.

Impact on Daily Life: Anxiety disorders can significantly impact an individual’s daily life, affecting their ability to work, socialize, and maintain healthy relationships. They can also lead to physical symptoms such as restlessness, fatigue, muscle tension, and sleep disturbances.

Treatment: Effective treatments for anxiety disorders include psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy), medication (like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), and lifestyle changes (such as regular exercise and stress management techniques).

Awareness and Support: Mental health awareness campaigns and initiatives have gained traction in the UK in recent years. Organizations like Mind and the Mental Health Foundation work to raise awareness, reduce stigma, and provide support for individuals dealing with anxiety disorders and other mental health conditions.

Impact of COVID-19: The COVID-19 pandemic has likely had a substantial impact on mental health, including anxiety levels. Lockdowns, social isolation, and uncertainty about the future have contributed to increased stress and anxiety for many people. However, precise statistics on this impact may vary.


Where to get help with anxiety UK?

Always call 999 if you are in need of urgent help. If you’re looking to contact organizations in the UK for help with anxiety, here are a few options:

  • Anxiety UK:

This is a leading national charity that provides support, information, and resources for people with anxiety disorders. You can contact Anxiety UK through their website, helpline, or email:


Helpline: 03444 775 774 (Monday to Friday, 9:30 AM – 5:30 PM)


  • Mind:

Mind is another prominent mental health charity in the UK that offers information, advice, and support for people experiencing mental health difficulties, including anxiety.


Infoline: 0300 123 3393 (Monday to Friday, 9:00 AM – 6:00 PM)

Text: Text “85258” for the Mind Infoline (24/7)

  • Samaritans:

While Samaritans primarily focuses on emotional support for people in distress, they are available to listen and provide support if you’re struggling with anxiety or any other emotional difficulty.

Helpline: 116 123 (24/7, free to call)

  • NHS IAPT Services:

If you’re seeking access to talking therapies for anxiety through the NHS, you can discuss this with your GP. They can refer you to the NHS Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) program, which offers various types of therapy.

  • Crisis Lines:

If you’re in immediate crisis or distress, you can reach out to organizations like Shout (text “SHOUT” to 85258) or Samaritans (116 123).

  • Private Therapists:

If you’re looking for private therapy options, you can search for registered therapists, counselors, or psychologists in your area. Websites like the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the British Psychological Society (BPS) have directories to help you find qualified professionals.

It’s important to reach out for support if you’re struggling with anxiety. You’re not alone, and there are people and organizations that want to help you manage your mental health.