What is depression?

Depression is a mental health disorder characterised by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest or pleasure in activities. It goes beyond the normal ups and downs of life and can significantly impact a person’s thoughts, emotions, behaviours, and physical well-being. Depression can vary in intensity and duration, and it can interfere with a person’s ability to function in daily life.


It’s important to note that depression is a complex condition, and its causes are multifaceted. Biological factors such as genetics, brain chemistry, and hormonal imbalances can contribute to its development. Psychological factors like negative thought patterns, trauma, and stress can also play a role. Additionally, environmental factors like social isolation, life events, and chronic medical conditions can contribute to or exacerbate depression.

Depression is a treatable condition, and various therapeutic approaches are available, including psychotherapy (talk therapy) and medication. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), antidepressant medications, and in some cases, a combination of therapies, are commonly used to manage and alleviate depressive symptoms. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of depression, it’s important to seek help from a mental health professional.

What are the signs of depression?

Depression is a complex mental health condition that can manifest in a variety of ways. It’s important to note that experiencing one or two of these signs doesn’t necessarily mean someone is depressed, but a combination of several of these symptoms over an extended period of time might indicate the presence of clinical depression. If you or someone you know is experiencing these symptoms, it’s recommended to seek professional help from a mental health provider. Common signs of depression include:

  • Persistent Sadness or Low Mood: Feeling sad, empty, or hopeless most of the day, nearly every day.
  • Loss of Interest or Pleasure: A diminished interest in activities that were once enjoyable or meaningful.
  • Significant Changes in Appetite or Weight: Experiencing significant weight loss or gain, along with changes in appetite.
  • Sleep Disturbances: Changes in sleep patterns, including insomnia (difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep) or hypersomnia (excessive sleepiness).
  • Fatigue or Lack of Energy: Feeling constantly tired and lacking the energy to engage in daily activities.
  • Feelings of Worthlessness or Guilt: Experiencing excessive guilt or feelings of worthlessness, often accompanied by negative self-talk.
  • Difficulty Concentrating or Making Decisions: Having trouble focusing, making decisions, or remembering things.
  • Agitation or Restlessness: Feeling restless, irritable, or having difficulty sitting still.
  • Physical Symptoms: Experiencing unexplained physical symptoms such as headaches or digestive problems.
  • Social Withdrawal: Pulling away from friends, family, or social activities that were once enjoyed.
  • Thoughts of Death or Suicide: Recurrent thoughts of death, dying, or suicidal ideation.
  • Changes in Physical Movement: Noticeable changes in physical activity, such as slowed movement or speaking more slowly than usual.


What are the statistics on Depression in the UK?

Prevalence: Depression is a common mental health issue in the UK. According to the Mental Health Foundation, around 1 in 4 people will experience a mental health problem, including depression, in any given year.

Adults Affected: In 2019, it was reported that approximately 8.2% of adults in the UK met the criteria for a common mental health disorder, which includes depression, in the past week.

Youth and Adolescents: Depression also affects young people in the UK. The Mental Health Foundation states that around 10% of children and young people aged 5 to 16 have a diagnosable mental health problem, and depression is one of the conditions they may face.

Gender Differences: Depression is more commonly diagnosed in women than in men. According to the Office for National Statistics (ONS), in 2020, 25.7% of women reported feeling high levels of anxiety and depression, compared to 18.2% of men.

Regional Variation: Rates of depression and mental health issues can vary by region within the UK. Factors such as socioeconomic conditions, access to healthcare, and cultural influences can contribute to these variations.

Impact on Work: Depression can have a significant impact on the workplace. In 2020, it was reported that mental health problems, including depression and anxiety, were the leading cause of sickness absence in the UK, accounting for around 51% of all work-related ill health cases.

Access to Treatment: Access to mental health services and treatment can vary. While the UK has mental health services provided through the National Health Service (NHS), there can be challenges related to waiting times and availability of services.

Suicide: Depression is a major risk factor for suicide. In the UK, suicide rates have been a concern. According to the ONS, the suicide rate in the UK increased slightly in 2020, with 11.0 deaths per 100,000 population.

Mental health is a complex issue influenced by various factors, and seeking help and support is crucial if you or someone you know is experiencing depression.

Who to contact about Depression in the UK?

If you or someone you know is experiencing depression in the UK, there are several resources and organizations you can contact for support and assistance. Here are a few options:

National Health Service (NHS):

The NHS provides a range of mental health services, including assessments, treatments, and support for individuals experiencing depression. You can start by contacting your local GP (general practitioner) for an initial assessment and guidance on available treatments. They can refer you to appropriate mental health services if needed. If you need urgent mental health support but it’s not an emergency, you can call NHS 111 to get advice and access to appropriate services.



The Samaritans offer emotional support 24/7 to anyone in the UK and Ireland who is struggling to cope. You can reach them by calling 116 123, which is a free helpline. You can also contact them via email or visit their website for more information.


Mind is a well-known mental health charity in the UK that provides information, advice, and support for individuals experiencing mental health issues, including depression. They have a helpline you can call at 0300 123 3393, or you can text “85258” for support via text message. Visit the Mind website for more resources and information.

Rethink Mental Illness:

Rethink Mental Illness is another UK-based charity that offers support and information for individuals living with mental health conditions, including depression. They have a helpline you can reach at 0808 801 0707.

CALM (Campaign Against Living Miserably):

CALM is a charity that focuses on preventing male suicide and offers support to anyone who needs it. They have a helpline that you can call at 0800 58 58 58.


YoungMinds is a charity dedicated to supporting the mental health of young people. If you’re a young person or a parent seeking help for a young person with depression, you can visit their website for resources and support.

Remember that seeking help is an important step if you or someone you know is experiencing depression. These organizations and helplines are staffed by trained professionals who can provide guidance, support, and information about available resources and treatment options. If the situation is urgent or you believe there’s a risk of harm to yourself or others, please reach out for help immediately.